A Topical Approach to Life Span 7th Edition – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 159)According to Esther Thelen, motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting. Her theory is called the _____ theory.
    A. bio-psycho-motor
    B. dynamic systems
    C. bio-behavioral
    D. perceptual systems

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Motor Development

  1. (p. 159)According to the dynamic systems theory, how do infants develop motor skills?
    A. Infants perceive something new in the environment that motivates them to act. They use their perceptions to fine-tune their movements.
    B. Motor development comes about through the unfolding of a genetic plan, or maturation.
    C. Motor skills are initially influenced by biology but become increasingly dependent on environmental factors.
    D. Infants take bits and pieces of data from sensations and build representations of the world in their minds.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Motor Development

 

 

  1. (p. 159)Six-month-old Andy is learning to scoot on his tummy in order to obtain nearby toys. This is an example of the:
    A. dynamic systems theory of motor coordination.
    B. bio-psycho-motor theory of coordination.
    C. physio motor theory of maturation.
    D. genetic plan theory of motor maturation.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Motor Development

  1. (p. 160)Infant reflexes:
    A. assist in the development of intermodal perception.
    B. may be important building blocks for later motor activity.
    C. enable the infant to survive the birthing process without physical damage.
    D. help strengthen the emotional bond with a primary caregiver.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160)What mechanisms help infants survive before they have an opportunity to learn adaptive behavior?
    A. reflexes
    B. motor skills
    C. vision and hearing
    D. dynamic systems

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

 

 

  1. (p. 160)Infants root in order to:
    A. find something to grasp.
    B. find something to suck.
    C. calm down.
    D. go to sleep.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160)Which statement BEST describes the relationship between the rooting and sucking reflexes?
    A. Both involve avoiding toxic substances.
    B. Rooting involves locating food; sucking involves eating food.
    C. Sucking involves eating; rooting involves bonding with a caregiver.
    D. Rooting involves grasping food source; sucking involves locating food.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Evaluation
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160)Baby Chloe startles when she hears a loud sound. She arches her back, throws back her head, and flings out her arms. Which reflex is she demonstrating?
    A. sucking
    B. Moro
    C. rooting
    D. grasping

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

 

 

  1. (p. 160)Janice strokes the cheek of newborn Robby. He turns his head toward that cheek and opens his mouth. This is an example of:
    A. sucking.
    B. the Moro reflex.
    C. rooting.
    D. grasping.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160)Adaptive, built-in reactions to stimuli are called:
    A. fine motor skills.
    B. gross motor skills.
    C. Moro.
    D. reflexes.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160)Which reflex helps to ensure that an infant obtains nourishment?
    A. sucking
    B. Moro
    C. grasping
    D. rooting

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

 

 

  1. (p. 160)Which reflex involves many responses from the whole body?
    A. sucking
    B. rooting
    C. Moro
    D. stepping

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160)The Moro reflex is a response to _____, whereas the grasping reflex is a response to _____.
    A. sound; touch
    B. touch; sound
    C. smell; sight
    D. sight; smell

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 160-161)How long does it take for most infants to establish a sucking style that matches how mothers hold them, how the milk is coming out of the bottle or breast, and the infant’s temperament?
    A. one day
    B. one week
    C. several weeks
    D. two months

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

 

 

  1. (p. 160)Shawn is 5 years old and sucks his thumb. His mother is worried that thumb sucking will become a lifelong habit. A developmental psychologist would MOST likely advise Shawn’s mother to:
    A. keep Shawn at home for another year before entering kindergarten.
    B. change her disciplining methods.
    C. develop a strict behavior intervention plan.
    D. relax because the behavior will most likely remit on its own.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 161)Activities that use large muscles develop:
    A. the Moro reflex.
    B. fine motor skills.
    C. gross motor skills.
    D. visual tracking.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 161)Baby Karyn has just learned to sit independently. Approximately how old is she?
    A. 1 year
    B. 3 weeks
    C. 2 months
    D. 6 months

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Development of Posture
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 161)Marta is growing quickly. Many of the reflexes with which she was born are fading. She is developing new abilities such as sitting and standing but is not yet able to climb or ride on riding toys. Marta is in her:
    A. first year.
    B. second year.
    C. proximodistal period.
    D. reflexive development phase.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: First Year
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 161)Infants normally are able to sit, stand, stoop, climb, and walk within the first:
    A. 6 months.
    B. year.
    C. 18 months.
    D. 2 years.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: First Year
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 161)Research shows that infants occasionally take a few large steps when walking. These large steps indicate which of the following?
    A. increased desire for independence
    B. increased acceleration and speed
    C. increased balance and strength
    D. sign of future delay in motor development

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Second Year

 

 

  1. (p. 162)Well-developed gross motor skills allow infants to become more independent. Independence is important because it:
    A. is a prerequisite for the development of fine motor skills.
    B. allows more and different kinds of interactions with the environment.
    C. fosters greater numbers of dendritic connections in muscle tissue.
    D. allows infants to strengthen the bonds with their primary caregivers.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Second Year

  1. (p. 161-162)Walking takes more than leg strength gained through genetic maturation. In order to solve this biomechanical problem, infants are first motivated to walk and then must learn to stabilize balance and shift weight. What theory of development does this describe?
    A. bio-cognition
    B. bio-psycho-social
    C. motor systems
    D. dynamic systems

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Learning to Walk

  1. (p. 161-162)Gigi rarely falls when going down a steep incline. If a slope is too steep, she is likely to turn around and go down backward. Gigi is an:
    A. experienced climber.
    B. inexperienced crawler.
    C. experienced walker.
    D. inexperienced walker.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Learning to Walk

 

 

  1. (p. 162)Instead of crawling on her hands and knees, 8-month-old Kenna scoots on her bottom using her hands to propel her. This is:
    A. a perfectly acceptable means of infant locomotion.
    B. likely to be correlated with poor reading ability later.
    C. a prerequisite to hands-and-knees crawling.
    D. a reason to enlist the services of an infant physical therapist.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Learning to Walk

  1. (p. 162)Miri can walk quickly and run stiffly. She balances on her feet while playing with blocks on the floor and loves to stand and kick her soccer ball. Miri is likely between the ages of _____ months.
    A. 18 and 24
    B. 13 and 18
    C. 9 and 12
    D. 36 and 48

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: First Year
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 162)To foster infants’ motor development, infancy experts recommend which of the following?
    A. giving infants opportunities for exercise
    B. rigorous physical handling
    C. restricting physical movement for the first year
    D. structured exercise classes

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: First Year
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 162)Infants are likely to reach motor milestones at different ages depending on culture. This is probably due to:
    A. climate.
    B. activity opportunities.
    C. genetic disposition.
    D. nutrition.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Cultural Variations
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 164)Jungle gyms, slides, and climbing equipment can help young children develop:
    A. handedness.
    B. fine motor skills.
    C. gross motor skills.
    D. concentration.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Early Childhood
Topic: Gross Motor Skills

 

 

  1. (p. 164)Dalton enrolled his daughter in a soccer league to help her develop:
    A. handedness.
    B. fine motor skills.
    C. gross motor skills.
    D. concentration.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

  1. (p. 164)Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding gross motor activity during middle and late childhood?
    A. Elementary-aged children become more fatigued by running, jumping, or bicycling than by sitting for long periods of time.
    B. Girls usually outperform boys in large-muscle activities until adolescence when the opposite is true.
    C. Elementary-aged boys usually outperform girls in large-muscle activities.
    D. Only structured and supervised activities are recommended for this age group due to the high risk of physical injury.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

 

 

  1. (p. 164)Joey is the best batter on his little league team. Which of the following is a consequence of playing organized sports that Joey may encounter?
    A. unrealistically high self-esteem
    B. too high academic expectations
    C. lower fat mass
    D. belonging to a smaller, less diverse social group

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

  1. (p. 164)Playing organized sports can have which of the following negative effects on a child?
    A. undo pressure and stress
    B. overly developed muscle mass
    C. decreased cognitive functioning
    D. increased peer pressure for substance abuse

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

  1. (p. 164)Peak physical performance usually occurs during:
    A. adolescence.
    B. the 20s.
    C. the 30s.
    D. the 40s.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Early Adulthood
Topic: Gross Motor Skills

 

 

  1. (p. 164)Which of the following athletes would MOST likely show peak performance during adolescence?
    A. golfer
    B. swimmer
    C. sprinter
    D. baseball player

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Adolescence
Topic: Gross Motor Skills

  1. (p. 165)Brent’s biological functions are beginning to decline. How old is he?
    A. 65
    B. 50
    C. 45
    D. 30

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle Adulthood

  1. (p. 165)Tom wants to attend his son’s little league game. His son is embarrassed by Tom’s loud cheering, though, and asks Tom not to come. What should Tom do?
    A. go anyway and cheer
    B. go but not cheer
    C. go but hide so his son can’t see him
    D. respect his son’s wishes and stay home

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills

 

 

  1. (p. 166)Gross motor skills include activities such as running, whereas fine motor skills include activities such as:
    A. jumping.
    B. a somersault.
    C. cutting with scissors.
    D. crab walking.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills

  1. (p. 166)What skills involve keenly tuned movements such as buttoning a shirt or typing?
    A. fine motor
    B. gross motor
    C. reflexes
    D. perceptual-motor

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills

  1. (p. 165-166)Tammy is middle aged and walks daily with her friends. Research shows that she can expect which of the following in older adulthood?
    A. higher level of adiposity
    B. arthritis in her knees and hips
    C. the same level of mobility restrictions as her non-walking counterparts
    D. lower mobility restrictions

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Late Adulthood

 

 

  1. (p. 166)Rachel Clifton and colleagues (1993) demonstrated that infants:
    A. have to see their own hands in order to reach for an object.
    B. do not have to see their own hands in order to reach for an object.
    C. have to be motivated by their environment and then act upon a perception in order to refine fine motor skills.
    D. obtain fine motor skills in a predetermined, biological sequence.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 166)A significant achievement in an infant’s interactions with the environment is the:
    A. onset of reaching and grasping.
    B. grasping reflex.
    C. Babinski reflex.
    D. the sucking reflex.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 166)Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings because 4-year-olds have more developed:
    A. artistic ability.
    B. fine motor skills.
    C. gross motor skills.
    D. symbolic representation ability.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Early Childhood
Topic: Fine Motor Skills

 

 

  1. (p. 168)Baby Jasmina is sitting in her high chair and picks up Cheerios using her thumb and forefinger. This newfound ability is due to the development of the:
    A. palmer grasp.
    B. pincer grasp.
    C. Babinski grasp.
    D. Moro grasp.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 168)Baby Ty is sitting on the floor and reaches for a toy. He picks up the toy using his entire hand and brings it towards him so that he can play with it. This ability is called the:
    A. palmer grasp.
    B. pincer grasp.
    C. Babinski grasp.
    D. Moro grasp.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 167)The “sticky mittens” study concluded that:
    A. gross motor coordination determines fine motor prowess.
    B. experience is irrelevant to the development of fine motor skills.
    C. experience plays a role in reaching and grasping.
    D. texture and sound play a role in grasping but not reaching.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 167)Which of the following reasons BEST explains why 4-year-old Tanisha might knock over a tower of blocks she is building?
    A. She fails to place a block squarely on the stack she is assembling.
    B. She tries too hard to place every block perfectly.
    C. She makes careless movements because she doesn’t pay enough attention to what she is doing.
    D. Knocking the tower down is more interesting than building it up.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 2.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Early Childhood
Topic: Fine Motor Skills

  1. (p. 168)Third-grader Thania forms her cursive letters in small, even rows. What BEST accounts for her improving dexterity?
    A. perception and environment interactions
    B. increased myelination
    C. bone ossification
    D. increased muscle development

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

 

 

  1. (p. 168)Which of the following statements is TRUE of fine motor skill development during middle and late childhood?
    A. Increased myelination is independent of fine motor skill maturity.
    B. Letter size becomes bigger and more even with age.
    C. Boys usually outperform girls in fine motor skills.
    D. Girls usually outperform boys in fine motor skills.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

  1. (p. 168)Kate and her granddaughter, Pamela, are taking a crocheting class together. Which of the following is a likely outcome?
    A. Kate progresses more quickly than Pamela.
    B. Pamela progresses more quickly than Kate.
    C. Kate and Pamela progress at the same rate.
    D. Kate quits because of incurred nerve damage from overuse of her hands.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills

  1. (p. 169)David hears a loud signal. The sound waves transmitted to David’s auditory nerve create the ­­­­­_____ of sound. David interpreting the sound waves as the school bell is _____.
    A. affordance; reception
    B. reception; affordance
    C. perception; sensation
    D. sensation; perception

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. (p. 169)Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors such as:
    A. the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin.
    B. neurons and synapses.
    C. the heart and lungs.
    D. age, weight, and height.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Sensation and Perception

  1. (p. 169)Which of the following BEST describes the relationship between sensation and perception?
    A. Sensation and perception are independent processes.
    B. Sensation occurs after perception.
    C. Perception cannot occur unless sensation takes place first.
    D. Neither sensation nor perception occurs without environmental motivation.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Sensation and Perception

  1. (p. 169)Chauncey yells, “I hear a train!” This example describes the processes of:
    A. sensation.
    B. perception.
    C. both sensation and perception.
    D. neither sensation nor perception.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. (p. 169)Perception brings people in contact with the environment in order for increased interaction and subsequent adaptation. This statement represents:
    A. dynamic systems theory.
    B. the ecological view.
    C. the ethological view.
    D. behaviorism.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Ecological View

  1. (p. 169)Eleanor and James Gibson purport that all objects have opportunities for interactions called:
    A. sensations.
    B. affordances.
    C. perceptions.
    D. slopes.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Ecological View

  1. (p. 169)According to the ecological view of sensory-perceptual development, how do we perceive and eventually represent objects in our minds?
    A. We take bits and pieces of data from sensations and build up representations of the world.
    B. Environmental stimuli motivate us to fine tune gross and fine motor movements in order to act.
    C. We directly perceive information that exists in the world around us. Perception fosters interaction with and adaptation to the environment.
    D. We perceive information and immediately categorize it through accommodation and assimilation.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Ecological View

 

 

  1. (p. 169)Eighteen-month-old Bridger is running in the park when he reaches a steep embankment. He stops, looks up, and then drops to his hands and knees and begins crawling up. This illustrates the concept of:
    A. perceptual processes.
    B. ecological functions.
    C. affordances.
    D. sensory function.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Ecological View
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 170)Dr. Jackson measures how long an infant regards different visual stimuli. Which experimental method is this?
    A. visual perceptual
    B. sensory perception
    C. dynamic systems
    D. visual preference

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

 

 

  1. (p. 170)Which of the following methods should Dr. Kim use if she wants to determine whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another?
    A. accommodation/assimilation
    B. tracing
    C. tracking
    D. visual preference

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

  1. (p. 169)Which of the following would be the MOST useful dependent variable in studying infant perception?
    A. length of visual fixation
    B. item patterns
    C. infant age
    D. amount of crying

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

  1. (p. 169)Infant Autumn begins to fuss and appears to be bored with her bouncer seat toys after several minutes. Autumn’s mother does not put Autumn in the seat for a few days. When Autumn returns to the seat, she is very content to sit and play. This is an example of:
    A. tracking.
    B. habituation/dishabituation.
    C. visual preference.
    D. sensation and perception response.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

 

 

  1. (p. 170-171)Ben and Becca have two deaf children. When their third child is born, which method could they use to test their infant’s hearing?
    A. high-amplitude sucking
    B. visual preference
    C. habituation/dishabituation
    D. auditory preference

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

  1. (p. 170-171)Which of the following is used in habituation studies?
    A. sucking behavior
    B. heart and respiration rates
    C. length of time an infant looks at an object
    D. all of these

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

  1. (p. 170-171)What is commonly used to assess an infant’s reaction to visual or auditory stimuli?
    A. sucking behavior
    B. vocalization
    C. facial expression
    D. voice pitch

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

 

 

  1. (p. 170)When a 2-day-old infant consistently shows a visual preference for a bull’s-eye pattern over a checkerboard pattern, we know that the infant:
    A. has normal 20/20 vision.
    B. can see fine details as well as adults can.
    C. can see the difference between the two patterns.
    D. recognizes circles more quickly than squares.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

  1. (p. 170)Robert Fantz (1963) randomly presented face patterns, newsprint, bull’s-eye patterns, or colored circles in a looking chamber and then measured how long an infant fixated on each item. What was the independent variable in this study?
    A. time the infant fixated on an item
    B. age of the infants when they could see the patterns
    C. number of items presented
    D. type of item presented (face pattern, newsprint, etc.)

 

APA Outcome: 1.3
APA Outcome: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

  1. (p. 170)What is the name given to decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus?
    A. habituation
    B. dishabituation
    C. visual preference
    D. affordance

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Preference Method

 

 

  1. (p. 172)As measured on the Snellen chart, a newborn’s vision is estimated to be:
    A. 20/100.
    B. 20/240.
    C. 20/150.
    D. 20/50.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Acuity

  1. (p. 172)William James said that the newborn’s perceptual world is “a blooming, buzzing confusion.” What did he mean?
    A. The newborn’s environment is loud.
    B. The newborn has advanced skills in hearing even soft sounds.
    C. The newborn lacks the perceptual skills to make sense of the surrounding stimuli.
    D. The newborn can see to some degree, but hearing is not well developed.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Perception

  1. (p. 170, 172)Baby Jacci is shown four drawings—a blue square, a white oval, a drawing of a face, and a black-and-white bull’s-eye. Based on Fantz’s work, which will she probably prefer to look at?
    A. the oval
    B. the face
    C. the square
    D. the bull’s-eye

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Acuity

 

 

  1. (p. 170, 172)Su-Fang would like to hang one picture above her baby’s crib. Which of the following would attract the MOST attention from the infant?
    A. a red circle
    B. a drawing of a face
    C. a bull’s-eye pattern
    D. a bright white square

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Acuity

  1. (p. 172)At what age is an infant able to distinguish male from female voices, discriminate between ethnic groups, and match grandma’s voice to her face?
    A. 3 months
    B. 8 months
    C. 1 year
    D. 2 years

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Acuity

 

 

  1. (p. 173)Christopher knows that the ball he is holding is smaller than the dog across the street, even though the retinal image of the dog is actually smaller than that of the ball. This is an example of:
    A. sensory compensation.
    B. perceptual size constancy.
    C. binocular sensation.
    D. glaucoma.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Perceptual Constancy

  1. (p. 173)The table appears to change shape depending on the angle from which baby Cory observes it. This is an example of:
    A. binocular perception.
    B. sensory compensation.
    C. perceptual shape constancy.
    D. visual lateralization.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Perceptual Constancy

 

 

  1. (p. 173)Jane views a chair differently whether she is sitting on the floor or standing next to it, but she knows it is a chair no matter the orientation. This is an example of:
    A. depth perception.
    B. size constancy.
    C. shape constancy.
    D. object constancy.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Perceptual Constancy

  1. (p. 173)From the top of the Ferris wheel, the people on the ground look small, but Allison knows they are regular-sized humans. This is an example of:
    A. object constancy.
    B. depth perception.
    C. shape constancy.
    D. size constancy.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Perceptual Constancy

  1. (p. 174)In the Gibson-Walk experiment, most of the babies who were encouraged to crawl off the visual cliff would:
    A. crawl off the drop off.
    B. not crawl off the cliff.
    C. crawl off the cliff side if their mothers coaxed them.
    D. crawl off the cliff but showed a significant increase in heart rate indicating anxiety.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Depth Perception
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 174)Many preschool children are:
    A. farsighted, unable to see far away as well as they can see close up.
    B. farsighted, unable to see close up as well as they can see far away.
    C. nearsighted, unable to see far away as well as they can see close up.
    D. nearsighted, unable to see close up as well as they can see far away.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Early Childhood
Topic: Visual Perception

  1. (p. 174)Robert’s teacher notices that he keeps blinking his eyes and squinting to see the board. These are signs that Robert may have:
    A. attention deficit disorder.
    B. vision problems.
    C. color blindness.
    D. presbyopia.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Visual Perception

  1. (p. 174)Two-year-old Saunder rubs his eyes, squints, tilts his head, and blinks excessively. Saunder’s parents should:
    A. give him more daytime naps.
    B. encourage more nighttime sleep.
    C. make an appointment with an ophthalmologist.
    D. wait for the results of the kindergarten vision screening.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Visual Perception

 

 

  1. (p. 175)Fifty-two-year-old Curtis is beginning to lose his ability to focus and maintain images on his retina. This condition is known as:
    A. macular degeneration.
    B. cataracts.
    C. glaucoma.
    D. presbyopia.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Middle Adulthood
Topic: Visual Acuity

  1. (p. 175)Kyle has progressive presbyopia. What is likely to help correct this condition?
    A. bifocal glasses
    B. trifocal glasses
    C. surgery to remove the eyes’ cloudy areas
    D. a diet rich in vitamin A

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Middle Adulthood
Topic: Visual Acuity

 

 

  1. (p. 175)Forty-seven-year-old Dixie is able to read better when she holds the book further from her face. The recent decline in her visual acuity is common among individuals her age and is known as:
    A. glaucoma.
    B. macular degeneration.
    C. dark adaptation.
    D. presbyopia.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Middle Adulthood
Topic: Visual Acuity

  1. (p. 175)Al avoids driving at night because it is difficult for his eyes to adjust after he passes oncoming cars. Al is having a problem with:
    A. dark adaptation.
    B. depth perception.
    C. presbyopia.
    D. his blind spot.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Middle Adulthood
Topic: Visual Acuity

 

 

  1. (p. 175)Thora’s grandson has noticed that Thora uses increasingly brighter colors in her paintings. Thora may be compensating for:
    A. glaucoma.
    B. reduction in the quality or intensity of light reaching the retina.
    C. a problem with dark adaptation.
    D. presbyopia.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Middle Adulthood
Topic: Visual Acuity

  1. (p. 176)Compared to younger drivers, older drivers:
    A. show a decline in motion sensitivity.
    B. need to expend more cognitive effort when driving.
    C. underestimate the time needed for an approaching vehicle to reach its location.
    D. all of these

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Visual Acuity

  1. (p. 176)Ilene has difficulty negotiating steps and street curbs. She is having a problem with:
    A. dark adaptation.
    B. depth perception.
    C. presbyopia.
    D. her blind spot.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Depth Perception
Topic: Late Adulthood

 

 

  1. (p. 176)Stella has just returned from the doctor and was told she has cloudy areas in the lenses of her eyes. Stella has:
    A. glaucoma.
    B. nearsightedness.
    C. macular degeneration.
    D. cataracts.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 176)Will is going to have surgery to remove a thick layer on his eye that is causing cloudy vision. He has:
    A. glaucoma.
    B. macular degeneration.
    C. cataracts.
    D. presbyopia.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 176)Allan is having laser surgery to repair the deterioration of his retina. He has:
    A. glaucoma.
    B. presbyopia.
    C. cataracts.
    D. macular degeneration.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

 

 

  1. (p. 176)The disease marked by retina deterioration is called:
    A. glaucoma.
    B. cataracts.
    C. macular degeneration.
    D. retinal hardening.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 176)Harley’s ophthalmologist is glad he came in. She gives him eye drops to treat a buildup of fluid that can damage his optic nerve or destroy his vision if it goes untreated. Harley has:
    A. presbyopia.
    B. macular degeneration.
    C. glaucoma.
    D. cataracts.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 176)Eyedrops are used to treat
    A. macular degeneration.
    B. glaucoma.
    C. cataracts.
    D. farsightedness.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

 

 

  1. (p. 177)DeCasper and Spence (1986) measured babies’ sucking rates as they listened to a story they had heard in the womb (The Cat in the Hat) and to a story that they had not heard (The King, the Mice, and the Cheese). In this study, the dependent variable is:
    A. sucking.
    B. age of the fetus when reading began.
    C. which story was read.
    D. mother’s voice versus other voice.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
APA Outcome: 2.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 177)DeCasper and Spence (1986) measured babies’ sucking rates as they listened to a story they had heard in the womb (The Cat in the Hat) and to a story that they had not heard (The King, the Mice, and the Cheese). The study concluded that:
    A. amniotic fluid blocks sound waves from reaching the fetus.
    B. increased heart rate showed that an infant could learn even before it is born.
    C. different sucking styles showed that an infant could learn even before it is born.
    D. the cadence of the reading material, not previous experience, altered sucking style and rate.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 177)We know that fetuses can hear before birth because newborns:
    A. show aversion to loud noises.
    B. show preferences for sounds presented repeatedly before birth.
    C. go to sleep while hearing lullabies.
    D. respond more when hearing sounds that were not presented before birth.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 177)Which sound is an infant most likely to hear?
    A. low-pitched, whisper volume
    B. low-pitched, conversational volume
    C. high-pitched, whisper volume
    D. high-pitched, conversational volume

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 177)Which of the following is TRUE of infants’ auditory development?
    A. Infants are more sensitive to the pitch of a sound than adults are.
    B. Immediately after birth, infants cannot hear soft sounds as well as adults.
    C. Infants cannot distinguish the location from which a sound originates.
    D. A fetus can hear sounds during only the last 2 weeks of pregnancy.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 178)About _____ newborns are deaf.
    A. 1 in 10
    B. 1 in 100
    C. 1 in 1,000
    D. 1 in 10,000

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 178)Which of the following is a small, electronic device that directly stimulates the auditory nerve?
    A. auditory laser implant
    B. hearing aid
    C. cochlear implant
    D. otitis media intervention

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

  1. (p. 178)What is the condition common in children that can temporarily impair hearing?
    A. diabetes
    B. glaucoma
    C. otitis media
    D. presbyopia

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Infancy

 

 

  1. (p. 178)Which of the following is FALSE?
    A. Older adults often deny they have hearing problems.
    B. Older women are more likely to seek treatment for their hearing than older men.
    C. Older adults often don’t recognize they have a hearing problem.
    D. Older adults lose their ability to hear low-pitch sounds before high-pitch sounds.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Middle Adulthood

  1. (p. 178)Hearing can start to decline by the age of 40. What usually declines first?
    A. sensitivity to soft sounds
    B. functioning of the cochlea
    C. sensitivity to low pitches
    D. sensitivity to high pitches

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Middle Adulthood

  1. (p. 178)What percentage of adults over 70 years of age has some type of hearing problem?
    A. 15 percent
    B. 22 percent
    C. 54 percent
    D. 63 percent

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Late Adulthood

 

 

  1. (p. 178)Fifteen percent of people over 65 are legally deaf usually due to degeneration of the primary neural receptor for hearing in the inner ear, or the:
    A. cochlea.
    B. eardrum.
    C. retina.
    D. otitis media.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 179)Older adults with _____ experience the most declines in health and functioning.
    A. hearing loss
    B. vision loss
    C. both vision and hearing loss
    D. vision loss and declines in sense of touch

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Hearing
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 179)Infant boys often drift into a deep sleep after circumcision. This is most likely:
    A. a mechanism to cope with the pain.
    B. a coincidence because infants do not feel pain.
    C. due to the medication used to numb the area.
    D. an Eriksonian developmental trust crisis.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Pain

 

 

  1. (p. 180)Which of the following is true of older adults’ experience of touch and pain?
    A. There are no changes in touch and pain with age.
    B. Older adults detect touch less in their ankles than their shoulders.
    C. Older adults detect touch less in their wrists than their knees.
    D. Older adults find the decline in touch sensitivity problematic.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Pain
Topic: Touch

  1. (p. 180)Six-day-old Shayli is presented with two nursing pads. One is soaked with her mother’s breast milk and the other is clean. Shayli will MOST likely:
    A. show no preference for either nursing pad.
    B. prefer her mother’s nursing pad.
    C. prefer the clean nursing pad.
    D. show no response unless she is hungry.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Smell

  1. (p. 180)Which of the following statements is true regarding smell and taste in the elderly?
    A. These senses do not decline as we age.
    B. Smell significantly decreases, but taste remains the same.
    C. Healthy elderly adults are less likely to experience a decline in these senses than unhealthy elderly adults.
    D. Smell and taste become more sensitive as we age.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Smell
Topic: Taste

 

 

  1. (p. 180)Research indicates that babies are first able to use their sense of taste _____ birth.
    A. before
    B. by 1 week after
    C. by 6 weeks after
    D. by 3 months after

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Taste

  1. (p. 180)Which taste preference develops at about 4 months of age?
    A. sweet
    B. sour
    C. salty
    D. bitter

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Taste

  1. (p. 180)Brenda’s grandmother is 83 years old. She most likely doesn’t show much interest in her food because:
    A. medication has caused her sensitivity to odors to increase.
    B. activity has increased in the olfactory pathways of her brain.
    C. her sense of taste has intensified to an unbearable degree.
    D. her sense of smell has declined.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Taste

 

 

  1. (p. 181)Which of the following is an example of intermodal perception?
    A. A child watches but cannot hear children playing outside in the snow.
    B. A child listens to soft music while falling asleep.
    C. A child watches and sings along with a favorite TV program.
    D. A child requires a cochlear implant for hearing.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Intermodal Perception

  1. (p. 181)If infants are able to engage in intermodal perception, this means they are able to:
    A. isolate the sensory source of information.
    B. coordinate information across different senses.
    C. sense visual and auditory stimuli at the same time.
    D. generate an internal representation of the sensory information.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Intermodal Perception

  1. (p. 181)What is the currently accepted view of intermodal perception?
    A. Intermodal perception is developed early in infancy.
    B. Newborns are born with some intermodal capabilities, but they improve through experience.
    C. A person’s intermodal perception is not coordinated until middle adulthood.
    D. Experience is not essential to the development of intermodal perception.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Intermodal Perception

 

 

  1. (p. 181)An infant will look more at his mother when he also hears her voice. This is an example of:
    A. vis-aud coordination.
    B. brain lateralization.
    C. intermodal perception.
    D. transharmony.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Intermodal Perception

  1. (p. 181)Dr. Smith believes that the ability to perceive the world in a competent, organized way is innate. Dr. Smith seems to uphold the:
    A. empiricist view.
    B. nativist view.
    C. intermodal perception.
    D. ecological view.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Basic
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Nature and Nurture

  1. (p. 183)Dr. Dre is interested in how people assemble motor behaviors for perceiving and acting. He is most likely taking a:
    A. dynamic systems approach.
    B. ecological approach.
    C. natavist approach.
    D. behavioral approach.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

 

 

  1. (p. 183)Dr. McDreamy is interested in how perception guides action. He is most likely taking a:
    A. dynamic systems approach.
    B. ecological approach.
    C. natavist approach.
    D. behavioral approach.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

  1. (p. 183)Evangeline is 80 years old and is involved in a program designed to enhance speed of processing in an effort to reduce her risk of crashing while driving. This program involves:
    A. education.
    B. cognitive training.
    C. dynamic systems training.
    D. perceptual-action coupling.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 1.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

  1. (p. 183)A program that has been shown to reduce at-fault accidents in older adults by more than 40 percent is:
    A. education.
    B. cognitive training.
    C. dynamic systems training.
    D. perceptual-action coupling.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

 

 

  1. (p. 183)When babies crawl or walk, the environment teaches them how objects and people look from different perspectives. This illustrates:
    A. education.
    B. cognitive training.
    C. dynamic systems training.
    D. perceptual-action coupling.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. (p. 159)Briefly describe Thelen’s dynamic systems theory.

Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting. In order to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the environment that motivates them to act and use their perceptions to fine-tune their movements.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Motor Development

 

 

  1. (p. 160)List and briefly describe three infant reflexes.
  2. Blinking: both eyes close rapidly
    2. Grasping: grasps tightly when palm is stroked
    3. Moro: back arches, head is thrown back, arms and legs fling out then rapidly close to center of body
    4. Rooting: head turns, mouth opens when cheek is stroked
    5. Sucking: sucks automatically

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Reflexes

  1. (p. 161-167)Define gross and fine motor skills, and give an example of each.
  2. Gross motor skills involve large muscle activities. Examples: moving arms and walking.
    2. Fine motor skills involve more finely tuned movements. Examples: finger dexterity, coordination of the thumb and forefinger, hand-eye coordination, hand rotation.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Fine Motor Skills
Topic: Gross Motor Skills

 

 

  1. (p. 164-165)List three positive and three negative consequences of participation in children’s sports.

Positive:

1. Exercise
2. Learn how to compete
3. Increased self-esteem
4. Increased social skills with peers
5. Increased social skills with adults
6. Meet new friends
7. Increased physical fitness
8. Lower fat mass
Negative:

1. Pressure to achieve and win
2. Physical injuries
3. Distraction from academic work
4. Unrealistic expectations for athletic success
5. Poor self-esteem
6. Negative role models

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

 

 

  1. (p. 165)List three “dos” and three “don’ts” for parents and coaches of children in sports.

Dos:

1. Make sports fun.
2. Remember that it is okay and expected that children make mistakes.
3. Allow children to ask questions.
4. Show respect for a child’s participation.
5. Be positive with the child.
6. Be a good example and positive role model.
Don’ts:

1. Yell or scream at the child.
2. Condemn the child for poor play.
3. Point out errors in front of others.
4. Expect the child to learn something immediately.
5. Ridicule or make fun of the child.
6. Make sports all work and no fun.
7. Compare the child to others.
8. Expect the child to become a professional.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Gross Motor Skills
Topic: Middle and Late Childhood

  1. (p. 169)Contrast sensation with perception.

Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors—eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin. Perception is the interpretation of what is sensed.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Sensation and Perception

 

 

  1. (p. 169-170)Briefly describe Eleanor and James Gibson’s ecological theory.

We directly perceive information that exists around us. Perception brings us into contact with the environment in order to interact with and adapt to it. Perception is designed for action.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-01 Describe how motor skills develop
Topic: Ecological View

  1. (p. 169)Briefly explain the concept of “affordances.”

Affordances are opportunities for interaction offered by objects that are necessary to perform activities. We perceive affordances by sensing information from the environment. As we become more experienced, we better understand what interactions objects “afford” and we adjust our actions accordingly.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Ecological View

  1. (p. 164)Define habituation and dishabituation.

Habituation: decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus.
Dishabituation: recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Ecological View

 

 

  1. (p. 170)Define and give an example of size and shape constancy.

Size constancy: recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes. (Any example involving an understanding that the size of an object stays the same even though it may appear smaller or larger depending on distance or vantage point.)
Shape constancy: recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes. (Any example involving an understanding that the shape of an object remains the same even though it may appear otherwise depending on viewing angle.)

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Perceptual Constancy

  1. (p. 176)List and describe two diseases that can impair the vision of older adults.
  2. Cataracts: thickening of the lens of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted.
    2. Glaucoma: damage to the optic nerve due to pressure created by a buildup of fluid in the eye.
    3. Macular degeneration: deterioration of the retina.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Diseases of the Eye
Topic: Late Adulthood

  1. (p. 181)Define intermodal perception.

Intermodal perception: the ability to relate and integrate information about two or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Intermodal Perception

 

 

  1. (p. 181-182)Compare and contrast the nativist vs. empiricist view of perceptual development.

Nativists believe that the ability to perceive the world in a competent, organized way is inborn or innate.
Empiricists emphasize learning and experience.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-02 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development
Topic: Nature and Nurture

  1. (p. 183)Define perceptual-motor coupling, and describe how this concept applies to an infant’s development.

Perceptual-motor coupling: Action guides perception, and perception guides action. Babies continually coordinate their movements with perceptual information to learn how to maintain balance, reach for objects in space, and move across various surfaces and terrains.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Infancy
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

 

 

  1. (p. 183)Based on what you have read in the text, if I were to design a program to reduce at-risk accidents in old people, what type of interventions would have a high degree of efficacy?

Cognitive training programs have shown some success in older adults, including improving their driving safety and making driving less difficult. In one study conducted by Karlene Ball and her colleagues (2010), training designed to enhance speed of processing produced more than a 40 percent reduction in at-fault crashes over a 6-year period.

 

APA Outcome: 1.1
APA Outcome: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Learning Objective: 05-03 Discuss the connection between perception and action
Topic: Late Adulthood
Topic: Perceptual-Motor Coupling

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