A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank

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  1. Multiple Choice

 

NOTE:   The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

5, 10, 15, 22, 34, 35, 50, 52

 

 

  1. One consequence of Enlightenment thinking was that
  2. intellectuals began to question the literal truth of the Biblical story of creation
  3. the argument from design was accepted by all 19th century scientists
  4. from early in the 19th century, even members of the Church of England rejected the

Biblical account of creation

  1. in the 19th century, there was a backlash against science and a rejection of technology

 

  1. The French naturalist Lamarck believed that
  2. attributes acquired during one’s lifetime could be inherited
  3. species are organized according to a linear “chain of being”
  4. both attributes acquired during one’s lifetime could be inherited and species are organized according to a linear “chain of being”
  5. none of these

 

  1. Before going to Cambridge, Darwin went to ______ to study ______.
  2. Edinburgh; medicine
  3. Oxford; geology
  4. London; biology
  5. Leipzig; psychology

 

  1. While at Cambridge, Darwin learned biology (botany, actually) from _____ and geology from ______.
  2. Henslow; Sedgewick
  3. Henslow; Lyell
  4. Paley; Sedgewick
  5. Paley; Lyell

 

  1. According to Lyell’s uniformitarian view of geology,
  2. the earth was not more than 5 or 6 thousand years old
  3. the earth is in a general steady state, but occasionally undergoes very large changes
  4. geologic change is slow and occurs steadily through such forces as erosion
  5. the Biblical account of the earth’s formation is correct (Darwin set out to disprove Lyell’s idea)

 

  1. In geology, uniformitarianism is to catastrophism as ______ is to ______.
  2. flooding; drought
  3. Old Testament flood; New Testament fishes and loaves
  4. Lyell; Darwin
  5. erosion; Biblical flood

 

  1. Darwin found fossilized seashells in the Andes Mountains, thereby supporting
  2. Sedgewick’s catastrophic views about geology
  3. the biblical account of creation
  4. Lyell’s uniformitarian model of geology
  5. the Lamarckian notion of a chain of being

 

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Darwin’s visit to the Galápagos Islands?
  2. while there, all the pieces of the puzzle fell together and he had his theory when he left the

island

  1. the finches would eventually supply a key piece of the puzzle, but Darwin didn’t realize the

significance of these birds at the time

  1. while there (over a year), Darwin was able to observe the formation of new species of finches

by direct observation

  1. the islands played no role in his theory of evolution, but he did make important geological

discoveries there

 

  1. Malthus believed all of the following except
  2. government has a responsibility to aid the poor
  3. there is an inevitable struggle for existence in nature
  4. population growth occurs more rapidly than increases in the food supply
  5. during times of shortages, only the most fit will survive

 

  1. Darwin took the concept of there being a struggle for existence from
  2. Lyell’s work on geology
  3. Malthus’s work on population
  4. his observations of pigeon breeders
  5. his cousin’s (i.e., Galton’s) research on mental testing

 

  1. For Darwin, what was the value of his observations of pigeon breeders?
  2. he saw an analogy between artificial and natural selection
  3. it gave him a first hand glimpse at the outcome of a struggle for existence (the pigeons had

to fight for their food)

  1. it provided evidence to support Lamarck’s idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics
  2. it showed him that adaptation to the environment is not always very important

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Darwin’s finches?
  2. their different-shaped beaks provided an important clue to evolution
  3. the instant Darwin set eyes on them in the Galápagos Islands, he knew he had the answer to

the species problem

  1. they created an obstacle for Darwin because they seemed to be a perfect illustration of the

argument from design

  1. both their different-shaped beaks provided an important clue to evolution and the instant Darwin set eyes on them in the Galápagos Islands, he knew he had the answer to the species problem

 

  1. The primary purpose of the Beagle’s voyage was to
  2. be the first British ship to circumnavigate the globe
  3. collect evidence with reference to the species problem
  4. map the coastline of South America
  5. establish British control over the Galápagos Islands

 

  1. All of the following are elements of Darwin’s original theory of evolution except
  2. within a species, members of that species are different from each other
  3. there is a “natural selection” that is analogous to “artificial selection”
  4. there is a constant struggle for limited resources
  5. genetic mutation is the means of creating individual differences within species

 

  1. According to Darwin,
  2. in the struggle for existence, only the physically strong survive
  3. generally speaking, the food supply grows faster than the population for a given species
  4. variations within a species that are “adaptive” are “naturally” selected for survival
  5. there is a lot of variation from one species to another, but variation within a species is

virtually nonexistent

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Darwin’s experiences during the Beagle trip?
  2. right from the start, his goal was to disprove the Biblical account of creation
  3. he found considerable evidence to support Lyell’s geological theories
  4. he made many observations, but the specimens he sent back all sunk in a shipwreck (that’s

why the theory was delayed so long)

  1. he was able to complete his theory immediately after visiting the Galápagos Islands

 

  1. Darwin wrote out a 200+ page sketch of his theory as early as 1844. Yet he delayed publication of his Origin of Species until 1859. Which of the following is least likely to be the reason why he delayed?
  2. as a cautious Baconian scientist, he wanted to accumulate as much data as possible to

support the theory before he announced it

  1. he was aware of the social consequences of his theory, and was waiting for a more favorable

zeitgeist

  1. he was slowed by a debilitating illness that he might have contracted on the Beagle voyage
  2. he lacked confidence in his theory until it was confirmed by the Wallace letter

 

  1. Which of the following was part of Darwin’s theory of evolution?
  2. members of different species vary considerably from each other, but within the same species,

there is virtually no variation

  1. only the physically strongest will survive in the struggle for existence
  2. those with adaptive variations tend to live long enough to reproduce
  3. animals evolve, but humans are not part of evolution

 

  1. Darwin did not publish his theory in the early 1840s. Several factors contributed. Which of the following was not one of them?
  2. he did not want to be associated with the author of Vestiges of Creation
  3. he did not think he had enough empirical support for the theory
  4. ill health slowed him
  5. he did not have his theory worked out until the late 1850s

 

  1. The publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species produced a great deal of debate and controversy. The scientist who was the most ardent defender of Darwin’s ideas was
  2. Lyell
  3. Huxley
  4. Wilberforce
  5. Henslow

 

  1. What is the significance of the work by William Wells (American physician who drew the artificial and natural selection parallel in the 1830s) and Patrick Matthew (Scottish botanist who challenged Darwin on priority)?
  2. they show that the zeitgeist in the 19th century was favorable to evolutionary thinking
  3. they show that Darwin has been given too much credit for his theory—several others had

exactly the same idea and produced just as much research

  1. they show that Darwin’s original idea about natural selection was wrong (Wells and Matthews,

in essence, corrected Darwin’s erroneous ideas)

  1. because they did not follow up their ideas with much research, their work has no significance

for our modern understanding of how evolutionary theory developed in the 19th century

 

  1. Darwin believed that emotional expressions evolved from behaviors that once aided survival. He referred to this as the principle of
  2. the struggle for existence
  3. antithesis
  4. survival of the fittest
  5. serviceable associated habits

 

 

  1. What did Darwin believe about emotions?
  2. emotional expressions evolved from situations in which the expressions had survival value
  3. the insane provide a link to our evolutionary past because their emotions are raw and not

under the normal control of society

  1. both emotional expressions evolved from situations in which the expressions had survival value and the insane provide a link to our evolutionary past because their emotions are raw and not under the normal control of society
  2. none of these

 

  1. Why did Darwin believe that it was useful to study children and the insane to learn about emotion?
  2. they would not show the normal adult inhibitions to expressing full emotions
  3. they would be more likely to cooperate than normal adults
  4. it would be easier to subject them to galvanization
  5. none of these—he believed that the only way to study emotions was to study non-humans

 

  1. How did Darwin study emotional expressions?
  2. galvanization
  3. study expressions in children and the insane
  4. cross-cultural comparisons with questionnaires
  5. he used all of these methods

 

  1. When dogs meet their masters, they often display submission. According to Darwin, this illustrates which principle?
  2. direct action of the nervous system
  3. serviceable associated habits
  4. antithesis
  5. parsimony

 

  1. Darwin used the example of the emotional expression of disgust to illustrate which principle?
  2. parsimoniousness
  3. antithesis
  4. serviceable associated habits
  5. direct action of the nervous system

 

  1. Darwin used the example of a man’s hair turning white overnight to illustrate which principle?
  2. parsimoniousness
  3. antithesis
  4. serviceable associated habits
  5. direct action of the nervous system

 

  1. In his research with birds, Spalding found evidence that
  2. the British empiricists were right—experience is the key
  3. as long as the environment is good, birds will develop normally
  4. critical periods for development existed
  5. birds won’t peck accurately unless they have the observed their mother doing it

 

  1. Spalding found that newly hatched birds followed him around, a phenomenon later called
  2. instinctive movement
  3. species enhancing behavior
  4. critical period behavior
  5. imprinting

 

  1. Spalding demonstrated all of the following except
  2. imprinting
  3. critical periods
  4. species differences in hearing
  5. instinctive behavior in birds

 

  1. Spalding found that if newborn birds were prevented from hearing their mother’s call for five days, they would still recognize her; if prevented from hearing the mother for 10 days, they would never learn to recognize her. That is, he demonstrated the existence of what later was called
  2. maturation
  3. critical periods
  4. imprinting
  5. parsimony

 

  1. All of the following are true about Romanes’ work on animal psychology except
  2. it was overly anthropomorphic
  3. he failed to recognize the danger of relying on anecdotal methods
  4. it failed the test of Lloyd Morgan’s canon
  5. he listed a lot of facts, but failed to organize them into a theory of mental evolution

 

  1. Which of the following was true about Romanes’ work on animal psychology?
  2. because he relied on introspection, he failed to notice just how remarkable the mental

capacities of animals were

  1. he believed that dogs learned to open gates as a result of trial and error learning
  2. his conclusions were overly anthropomorphic
  3. his conclusions were consistent with Lloyd Morgan’s canon

 

  1. Lloyd Morgan believed that
  2. it was never appropriate to attribute mental processes to animals
  3. very simple animals cannot think, but advanced animals (e.g., dogs) can use reason to

figure out such things as how to open gates

  1. scorpions could experience despair and commit suicide
  2. different species of animals reach a level of mental complexity just sufficient for them to

survive

 

  1. Seeing a dog open a gate, _____ would be impressed with the reasoning and foresight involved, while ______ would interpret it as the result of trial-and-error learning.
  2. Romanes; Morgan
  3. Morgan; Romanes
  4. Galton; Romanes
  5. Darwin; Morgan

 

  1. Scorpions sometimes sting themselves to death. Which of the following is true?
  2. Morgan interpreted the behavior anthropomorphically
  3. Romanes believed the behavior occurred by accident and randomly
  4. the true explanation was that scorpions sometimes commit suicide
  5. Morgan showed that the behavior was a failed attempt to remove irritants from the skin

 

  1. I wrote that scorpions sometimes commit suicide and that beavers show foresight when building dams. Who am I?
  2. George Romanes
  3. Lloyd Morgan
  4. Francis Galton
  5. Douglas Spalding

 

  1. Which of the following is appropriately paired?
  2. Galton—individual differences
  3. Lyell—catastrophism
  4. Romanes—trial and error learning
  5. Morgan—anecdotal method

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not appropriately paired?
  2. Galton—correlation
  3. Darwin—natural selection
  4. Romanes—anthropomorphic
  5. Morgan—anecdotal method

 

  1. Which of the following would be least likely to be found on a list of mental tests from Galton’s lab?
  2. analogy problems (A is to B as 1 is to ___)
  3. a test for color vision
  4. reaction time
  5. hearing acuity

 

  1. All of the following are true of Sir Francis Galton except
  2. he was obsessed with the idea of collecting data (“whenever you can, count”)
  3. he believed it was more important to study general principles of human behavior; he

didn’t think it was very useful to study individual differences

  1. he developed a method for quantifying “co-relations” that eventually became the

correlation coefficient

  1. he rejected the idea that the environment played a significant role in intelligence

 

  1. To study intelligence, Galton
  2. limited himself to survey research
  3. made comparisons among species (i.e., he was an important comparative psychologist)
  4. noted similarities in the intelligence of twin pairs
  5. developed mental tests that emphasized thinking and problem solving tasks

 

  1. Galton is associated with all of the following except
  2. eugenics
  3. contributions to comparative psychology
  4. individual differences
  5. nature on the nature-nurture issue

 

  1. Galton used questionnaires to study imagery. Although his results have been challenged recently, what did he believe were to be true?
  2. scientists and mathematicians were the most likely of his subjects to be able to recall clear

images

  1. men had a much greater ability than women to create and use images
  2. both scientists and mathematicians were the most likely of his subjects to be able to recall clear

images and men had a much greater ability than women to create and use images

  1. none of these

 

  1. In the subtitle to one of his books, Galton popularized the phrase
  2. survival of the fittest
  3. nature and nurture
  4. struggle for existence
  5. comparative psychology

 

  1. One outcome of his mental testing program was that Galton created which statistical concept?
  2. correlation
  3. means and standard deviations
  4. analysis of variance
  5. the “G” test

 

 

  1. On the basis of the measures he used for mental ability, Galton concluded that
  2. men’s senses were more finely tuned than women’s
  3. women had sharper senses than men, but men were smarter than women
  4. sensory abilities had nothing to do with intelligence
  5. women hear better than men, but men see better than women

 

  1. In his questionnaire studies on visual imagery, Galton drew a conclusion that has now been shown to be wrong (i.e., Galton’s data themselves fail to support his conclusion). What was his erroneous conclusion?
  2. women were better at creating images than men
  3. eminent scientists failed to report using imagery
  4. using imagery seems to be associated with being insane
  5. scientists seemed to have especially vivid images

 

  1. Galton believed that society should take deliberate steps to promote “good breeding.” That is, he advocated
  2. remedial schools for the poor
  3. a program of eugenics
  4. a social welfare system
  5. equal treatment for men and women

 

  1. What did Galton discover in his studies of association?
  2. making several consecutive walks along Pall Mall, he noticed that associations tended to

repeat themselves

  1. he was surprised at how few associations he was able to make to common words
  2. it led him to reject the idea of an unconscious
  3. most of his free associations had sexual content

 

  1. On his word association test, Galton found that
  2. he tended to produce completely different associations each time he went through the list
  3. he could rule out the existence of anything like an “unconscious”
  4. when he went through his word list repeatedly, the same associations tended to occur to the

same words

  1. his responses tended to be the same as the other people he studied

 

 

 

Answers

 

  1. A 27. C
  2. C 28. D
  3. A 29. C
  4. A 30. D
  5. C 31. C
  6. D 32. B
  7. C 33. B
  8. B 34. C
  9. A 35. D
  10. B 36. A
  11. A 37. D
  12. A 38. A
  13. C 39. A
  14. D 40. D
  15. C 41. A
  16. B 42. B
  17. D 43. C
  18. C 44. B
  19. D 45. D
  20. B 46. B
  21. A 47. A
  22. D 48. A
  23. C 49. B
  24. A 50. B
  25. D 51. A
  26. C 52. C
    II. Short Answer

 

 

  1. What was the “chain of being” concept?
  2. What was the centerpiece of Lamarck’s theory of evolution?
  3. What was the essence of Lyell’s theory of geological change?
  4. What key idea did Malthus contribute to Darwin’s evolving theory?
  5. What key idea did pigeon breeders contribute to Darwin’s evolving theory?
  6. Give an example to show that you know what Darwin meant by sexual selection.
  7. Give an example to show that you know what is meant by Darwin’s principles of serviceable associated habits.
  8. How did Spalding demonstrate instinctive behavior in birds?
  9. What does it mean to accuse someone of being anthropomorphic?
  10. Most of the discussion about comparative psychology in this chapter revolves around work being done in Great Britain in the late 19th century. During this time, what was going on in comparative psychology in the United States?
  11. Why did a program of eugenics follow logically from Galton’s views about intelligence?
  12. What was Galton’s opinion about the proper way to measure mental ability?
  13. What did Galton conclude about the mental imagery of scientists?

 

 

III. Essay

 

 

  1. What was the species problem, and for most of the 19th century, what was the solution favored by the Church of England and articulated by Reverend Paley.
  2. Distinguish between catastrophism and uniformitarianism as approaches to geology and describe Darwin’s contribution to the debate.
  3. Explain the significance of Darwin’s finches to the theory of evolution.
  4. Explain the significance of Malthus’s view on population to the theory of evolution.
  5. Describe the difference between Darwin’s theories of (a) natural selection and (b) sexual selection.
  6. What is the connection between Darwin’s theory of evolution and the development of (a) interest in comparative psychology and (b) functionalism as a school of psychology?
  7. Describe the essential features of Darwin’s theory. Be sure to explain how the ideas of Malthus contributed to the theory.
  8. Explain how (a) Malthus and (b) pigeon breeders made major contributions to Darwin’s thinking as he developed his theory of evolution.
  9. Describe Darwin’s theory about how emotional expressions come to be.
  10. Douglas Spalding could be considered a forerunner of the modern study of ethology. Explain and describe at least one of his studies.
  11. Use the scorpion example to illustrate the contrast between the approach to comparative psychology taken by Romanes and the approach taken by Morgan.
  12. The British comparative psychologist Lloyd Morgan believed that most descriptions of animal behavior were too anthropomorphic. What did he mean and what did he propose instead (use the behavior of dogs opening gates as an example)?
  13. What were Galton’s beliefs about the best way to measure mental ability (give two examples of the kinds of tests he would be likely to use)?
  14. Describe the methods used by Galton to study intelligence and the logic behind his conclusions.
  15. What was eugenics and why was Galton such a strong advocate?

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